Simulations and Drills

S M L
Date:2017/5/1 AM 11:18:33
Subject:Activities

Simulations and Training
 

I. Fire Extinguisher: this is a fire protection device for immediate use, to extinguish or control small fires in emergency situations.

Steps (operation tips): pull (safety pin) -> aim (base of fire) ->squeeze (handle) -> sweep (sweep the handle left and right at the base of the fire)

1. Pull: Pull the safety pin from the handle
2. Aim: Lift the hose and aim the extinguisher nozzle or hose at the base of the fire.  
3. Squeeze: Squeeze the handle or lever downward to discharge the agent. Sweep it side to side over the fire until expended.
4. Verify: Put out remaining sparks or embers in materials with water. Monitor to verify that the fuel source is extinguished.

1. Hoist the fire extinguisher
2. Pull the safety pin from the handle
3. Hold the hose firmly and aim the extinguisher nozzle or hose at the base of the fire
4. Press lever downward hard
5. Discharge the agent at the base of fire
6. Sweep the extinguisher side to side over the fire
7. Put out remaining sparks or embers with water until the source is expended

Caution

1. Get into a position on the upwind side of the fire.
2. The needle in the pressure gauge should be in the green zone.
3. Identify the class of fire emergency: assess the fuel source to determine whether a fire extinguisher is the appropriate tool. The chemical foam extinguisher should never be used to put out small fires on home appliances.
4. Range of discharge: the general-type extinguishers have a service range of 5 meters. Aim the extinguisher at the source of fire within this range to maximize service.
5. The typical fire extinguisher will contain around 10 seconds of extinguishing power.
6. Hold the handle firmly when using a carbon dioxide-type extinguisher to prevent frostbites.

II. Smoke Inhalation Lab

  1. Breathable air would remain in spaces 30 centimeters to 60 centimeters aboveground. Crouch down low and crawl along the edge of the wall to find an exit. Close it upon escape.
  2. Inhale deeply the residual breathable air in the stairwell and escape quickly.

 

III. Storm Lab

1. Stay home if the residential structure is sturdy enough to withstand strong winds and rain.
2. In the event of a blackout, be sure to keep the candles and other lighting devices from the combustibles.
3. For personal safety, steer clear of seawall areas for the following activities: tide-watching, water sports, rock-picking, and fishing.
4. When spotting fallen electric wires or cables, notify the power company immediately without touching the fallen objects.
5. If you notice an abrupt stop, or lull, in winds, it suggests that the area is centered in the "eye of the tropical cyclone." Refrain from venturing outside.
6. Drive slowly if you are traveling in a vehicle during the storm. Heed traffic safety rules. Do not park the vehicle in low-lying areas, under the bridge, on road shoulders, or under the trees.
7. In the event of strong winds while in the vehicle, park on the side of the road or somewhere safe for shelter. Do not risk any more driving.
8. Phone 119 for assistance in the event of an emergency.

IV. Earthquake Lab

1. Turn off the source of fires and gas next to you.
2. Unless the residential structure is in poor shape, do not venture outside so as to avoid being injured by fallen objects.
3. Seek shelter in places next to sturdy beams, pillars, beds or furniture. Make sure your neck is well-protected. Stay away from the windows and places exposed to fallen objects.
4. Open the doors immediately, in case that they become misshapen or stuck to prevent exit.
5. If you are inside the building when the quake hits, be sure to leave the building when the quake stops. Do not take the elevator. Watch out for fallen objects from above.
6. Do not slam on the brake when the tremor hits, if the earthquake hits while you are driving. Heed the happenings around you, and decelerate.
7. If you happen to be outdoors, stay in an open space, and steer clear of steep cliffs, power poles or areas exposed to fallen objects (such as tiles or shingles of buildings).

V. Escape Sling

1. Escape slings are usually placed next to their frame, and should only be used in an emergency.
2. There are use instructions next to each escape sling. To learn how to use an escape sling, make sure that you set a block of time and read the instructions in the manual.

3. Remember, the primary means of escape in a fire should be stairs, passageways and fire exits. Escape slings should only be used when there is no other way out and should not be regarded as the only means of escape.
 

Steps

1.     Hang the hook: Take out the escape sling, open (twist) the hook connector and then hook the escape sling on the fixed frame (the screws on the hook should be screwed tight).
2.     Toss down the rope and rotating disc: throw the rope and the rotating disc out of the window.
3.     Put on the safety harness: secure the safety harness under your armpits.
4.     Pull the clamp: fasten the clamp to your chest.
5.     Pull the two ropes under the regulator tight, climb out of the window, face the wall and open your arms. While descending, the left hand should tightly hold the harness on the outside of the clamp while the right hand touches the wall lightly to maintain stability during the descent and avoid obstacles on the wall.
6.     When you reach the bottom, pull the ropes down to facilitate use by the next person.
 

Caution

1.     Check the rope is not obstructed when the rope and rotating disc are thrown down.
2.     When the rope is tossed down, it should be free of knots and tangles.
3.     Check the escape slide is being used on the correct floor (rope length).
4.     When using the escape slide, do not raise your hands to prevent the safety rope from coming loose and endangering you.

VI. Marine Commando Traverse Exercise

Two-rope suspension bridges were originally widely used by soldiers and are also now often used in mountain, rapids rescue programs, patient evacuation and other situations where transportation is not possible. The equipment is light and mobile. To make training and education more interesting, the Disaster Management Simulation Lab tests the courage of children and their ability to use hands and brain in coordination. The Fire Bureau rescue team training ground provides schoolchildren with a valuable learning experience.

Caution

1.     Check if the safety rope is firmly attached.
2.     Check the safety harness (or rope) is worn properly.
3.     Check to see if the carabiner is closed.
4.     Avoid scraping your body against the rope.
5.     Take suitable face-protection measures to prevent the rope from coming into contact with your face.

VII. An Overview on Fire Prevention

    The main causes of fires are: electrical wire short circuits, carelessness when cooking, ignition by cigarette butts, children playing with fire, careless ancestral worship practices and use of gas.

Preventing fires:

(1) Preventing electrical wire short circuits

1. Electrical appliance plugs should be firmly inserted and sockets should not be overloaded.
2. Check electrical wires regularly for damage.
3. When using electrical appliances, be sure to turn them off when you leave.
4. Fish tank motors can burn if they overheat, so special care should be taken when using them.

Preventing Fires:
(2) Dispose of cigarette butts properly

1. Don’t smoke in bed
2. Don’t throw lit cigarette butts into a rubbish bin, or toss them away haphazardly.
3. Develop the habit of extinguishing cigarette butts.

Preventing fires:
(3) Things to be careful with when cooking

1.     If you need to leave the house when cooking, turn off the gas.
2.     Don’t fill up the pot too full when cooking, to prevent the spillage from putting out the flame and causing gas release.
3.     Don’t place combustible objects near a stove.
4.     Clean the exhaust fan regularly to prevent the stove flame from igniting built-up grease.
 

Preventing Fires:

(4) Forbid children from playing with fire

1.     Keep lighters and matches, etc., out of the reach of children.
2.     If a child is seen playing with a lighter or matches, stop them immediately and tell them about the dangers of playing with fire.
3.     Tell children that they should hand any lighters or matches they find to an adult for safekeeping.

Preventing Fires:

(5) Careful use of gas

1. Check the gas switch, rubber pipe etc. regularly for looseness or damage.
2. When using gas, be sure to “turn it off when you leave.”
3. If a gas leak is discovered, turn the gas off immediately, gently open the windows, avoid lighting any flame or causing a spark. Do not turn on a light, fan or exhaust fan.

Make a home escape plan:

Everyone knows the adage: “Preparation makes disaster less likely”, so we should routinely take precautions at home to reduce the chance of disaster. How is a home escape plan made? See the following:

Keep in mind the following tips (Post a home escape plan chart at the entrance):

1. Discuss with family, draw a map of the house layout.

2. Identify more than two exits and highlight them in red.

1. Jointly decide the fire escape time and route and an outdoor assembly point.

6. Become familiarized with escape methods and host a drill exercise with family every 6 months.

 

VIII. A Collection of Cultural Heirlooms on Tainan's Firefighting History
    Yellowed old photographs are the windows of memory. When we take a nostalgic look back on the history of firefighting, we'd be moved to see the hardships and challenges faced by earlier firefighters at time when resources were scant. The equipment, training and benefits given to these veteran firefighters of the past do not hold a candle to those available to today’s fire squads. The Disaster Management Simulation Lab has successively received historical materials and relics donated by generous people, and is actively archiving and sorting out these materials. This collection will be posted online when the archiving is completed, and made available to the public for all to view. 

1. Mr. Jiang Jyun-cing, a firefighter who perished on duty during a fire rescue
2. Fire truck evolution
3. Testament of history (Fire Building, Jhong-jheng Station)
4. Clock of time
5. A collection of materials, courtesy of veteran firefighter Chen Jin-tian
6. Memories encapsulated
 

IX: Fire Equipment
Fire-fighting equipment: learn about various pieces of fire equipment so that you won’t panic in a fire, and will be able to report the pending disaster, evacuate, and conduct first-stage fire suppression measures.

*Types of fire safety equipment: divided by use and function.
 

1. Alarm systems: these are the apparatuses that issue a warning in the event of a fire

  • Automatic fire alarm
  • Manual fire alarm
  • Emergency broadcasting equipment
  • Automatic gas leak and fire alarm

2. Fire suppression equipment: these are implements or equipment pieces used to extinguish fires by hand, or through use of an extinguishing agent.

  • Fire extinguisher, fire sand
  • Indoor fire extinguishers
  • Outdoor fire extinguishers
  • Automatic water sprinkler system
  • Atomized sprays fire suppression systems
  • Carbon dioxide fire suppression systems
  • Foam fire extinguishing equipment
  • Dry powder fire extinguishing equipment

3. Escape equipment: these are implements or equipment required to escape in the event of a fire.

  • Signs: exit signs, escape direction signs, escape pointers
  • Escape implements/equipment: slide, escape bridge, escape chute, escape sling, escape rope, slide pole and other escape equipment
  • Emergency lighting systems

4. Necessary equipment for fire rescue: they are the implements and equipment piece needed by firefighters for rescue in the event of a fire.

  • Hose
  • Water tank
  • Exhaust equipment (emergency escape sling room and safety stairwell exhaust facilities, indoor exhaust systems)
  • Emergency power source plug
  • Wireless communication equipment

X. Simulated 3D Fire Truck Ride
    Based on the principle of the flight simulator, the base is a Stewart platform with 6 hydraulic jacks. In the 3-minute experience, the fire truck model and cabin move along with the film to give users an experience of what it’s like to drive a fire truck when it goes out in an emergency. The ride is like being on a roller coaster, sharply moving up and down as sudden events that can happen when a truck is on the road are simulated; together with light and sound effects, users have a lifelike and thrilling experience that makes young students scream all way through and is guaranteed to leave them with an indelible impression of fire rescue work.


XI. Fire Rescue Model

        Developed in reference to the model of Tokyo Fire Department Fire Museum, improvements were made after research by the Fire Bureau by adding a house on fire, billowing smoke, human figures crawling to escape while covering their noses, fire trucks, firefighters firing water and other features. A self-made promotional film is shown in coordination with the movements of the model so that visitors are given a deep impression of how the 119 Duty Command Center receives reports and dispatches fire trucks and personnel. The whole experience lasts 7 minutes and 30 seconds. Tempted to give it a try? What are you waiting for?

Last updated:2017/5/1 AM 11:18:33

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